Section 24. Neoplastic Disorders >
Part 3. Solid Tumors >
Chapter 460. Brain Tumors and Spinal Tumors
Common Pediatric Brain TumorsKenneth J. Cohen and Ian F. Pollack
Topics Discussed: anaplastic astrocytoma; astrocytoma, juvenile pilocytic; atypical choroid plexus papilloma; brain stem glioma; brain tumor; brain tumor, childhood; central nervous system germ cell neoplasm; central nervous system tumor, pediatric; choroid plexus carcinoma, childhood; choroid plexus neoplasms; choroid plexus papilloma; craniopharyngioma; ependymoma; germ cell tumor; glioblastoma; glioma; low grade glioma; medical oncology; medulloblastoma, childhood; neuroectodermal tumors; neuroectodermal tumors, primitive; pediatric oncology; pilomyxoid astrocytoma; pineoblastoma; primitive neuroectodermal tumor, supratentorial; spinal neoplasms; teratoid-rhabdoid tumor, atypical.
Sections: Acknowledgment, References.
Excerpt:"The World Health Organization (WHO) subdivides brain tumors into
the following broad categories:Low-grade glioma (LGG) is a general term which encompasses the
World Health Organization (WHO) grade 1 tumors (pilocytic astrocytoma
and other histologically low-grade tumors) and the WHO grade 2 tumors
(low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma and more recently pilomyxoid astrocytoma).
In total, LGG constitute the largest group of childhood brain tumors.
Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most common of these tumors in children
(eFig. 460.2), representing approximately
25% of all childhood brain tumors.Recently, an apparent
variant of pilocytic astrocytomas, termed pilomyxoid astrocytoma,
has been described. This tumor frequently presents in very young
children as a large, diencephalic mass. In contrast to pilocytic
astrocytomas, which only occasionally disseminate, pilomyxoid astrocytoma
appears to frequently disseminate to other portions of the neuraxis.
Presenting symptoms are heterogeneous and reflect the ability of
LGG to present in virtually any part of the central nervous system.
Frequently, symptoms are protracted, reflecting the slow growth
rate of these tumors. Prognosis is most dependent on the extent
of tumor removal. Patients in whom a gross total resection has been
achieved have a greater than 90% long-term survival. This
bodes well for the patient who presents with a cerebral or cerebellar
cortical lesion, which can routinely be completed resected. The
same is not true for children who present..."
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