Topics Discussed: ear, nose, and throat; inspiration; nose; paranasal sinuses; respiration.
Sections: Nasal Examination, Congenital Nasal Anomalies, Nasal Obstruction, Inflammation, and Rhinorrhea, Nasal Masses, Epistaxis: Etiology and Management, Acquired Nasal Abnormalities, Rhinosinusitis, Sinonasal Manifestations of Systemic Disease, Acknowledgment, References.
Excerpt:"The nose is the major portal of air exchange between the internal
and external environment. Nasal functions include warming, lubricating,
humidifying, filtering, stimulating, and regulating airflow. The
roof of the nose also contains olfactory epithelium. In humans,
the sense of smell contributes to the perception of taste, warns
of impending hazards, and affects social interactions. The first sign of nasal development occurs at about 3 to 4 weeks
of fetal life.1 It begins with nasal pits forming
on the developing face that then invaginate to form the nasal sacs.
The oronasal membrane separates the nasal sacs from the primitive
oral cavity. The primitive nasal choanae communicate with the oral
cavity when the membrane ruptures during the eighth week of gestation.
As the membranous nasal cavities develop, neural crest cells migrate
from the anterior skull base and proliferate in the facial processes
to form the bony/cartilaginous skull base and nasal vaults,
which are completely formed by the end of the 10th week. ..."
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