Topics Discussed: dermatology; pediatric dermatology; pigmentation disorders.
Sections: Melanocytic Nevi and Other Pigmented Lesions, Pediatric Melanoma, Dermal Melanocytosis, Other Pigmented Lesions, Disorders of Pigmentation, References.
Excerpt:"Melanocytic lesions are extremely
common in pediatric patients. At least 1 melanocytic nevus develops
by early childhood in more than 95% of fair-skinned individuals.1 Dermal
melanocytosis and other pigmented lesions such as freckles, lentigines,
café au lait macules, and Becker nevi are also frequently
observed in children and adolescents. In addition, a variety of
disorders characterized by increased or decreased cutaneous pigmentation
can present in childhood, ranging from postinflammatory hyperpigmentation
and hypopigmentation to vitiligo to patterned pigmentation reflecting
cutaneous mosaicism. Genetic diseases with pigmentary manifestations
(eg, oculocutaneous albinism, piebaldism, Waardenburg syndrome,
tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis) are reviewed in Chapter 360. It is important for pediatricians to be aware of the clinical
spectrum and natural history of benign melanocytic lesions and self-limited disorders
of pigmentation in children as well as of findings that should raise
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