Topics Discussed: aerobic exercise; american heart association; cardiac function; cardiology; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular examination and evaluation; cardiovascular physiology; cardiovascular system; child examination; exercise; exercise tolerance; exercise, isometric; heart auscultation; heart function tests; heart murmur; history and physical examination, sports participation; innocent murmurs; isotonic exercise; marfan syndrome; medical history; physical examination; screening of the adolescent patient.
Sections: Sudden Cardiac Death, Management of Cardiac Arrest, Acknowledgement, References.
Excerpt:"Annual preparticipation cardiovascular screening of athletes is a generally accepted practice.1,2,3 The main objective of the screening is to identify risk factors that predispose a previously asymptomatic and apparently healthy athlete to sudden cardiac arrest and death.History is the most important aspect of cardiovascular screening of young athletes. The history has been shown to have the most yield for identifying potential risk factors for adverse cardiac outcome. The key elements of cardiovascular screening history are summarized in Table 14-1.14The two types of exercises based on the mechanical action of the muscles involved are dynamic (isotonic) and static (isometric).1,7 Dynamic exercise is characterized by rhythmic contractions of muscles accompanied by change in muscle length (shortening or lengthening) with movement of the joint over which the muscles act and minimal intramuscular force. Static exercise, on the other hand is characterized by contractions of muscles not accompanied by change in muscle length or joint movement and generation of large intramuscular force...."
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