Topics Discussed: chronic illness; critical care; tracheostomy complications; tracheostomy infection; tracheotomy procedure.
Sections: Tracheostomy Stoma Cellulitis, Bacterial Tracheitis in Children with Tracheotomy, Bacterial Pneumonia in Children with Tracheotomy, References.
Excerpt:"Tracheotomy is one of the most common surgical airway procedures performed in children. Approximately 5000 children undergo tracheotomy each year.1 In the past, tracheotomy was predominately performed in older children with acute upper airway compromise secondary to infection such as epiglottitis and croup.2 Currently, these acute upper airway infections represent less than 5% of tracheotomy performed in children.1,3 Tracheotomy is now more commonly being performed in children who require prolonged mechanical ventilation or who have significant anatomic rather than infectious causes of upper airway obstruction. The changes in the indications for tracheotomy reflect the extended survival of children born prematurely as well as those with chronic underlying illnesses such as neuromuscular disease and congenital anomalies.24 These underlying illnesses influence the etiology of tracheotomy-related infections encountered in children. This chapter focuses on the childhood tracheotomy-related infections of stoma cellulitis, tracheitis, and bacterial pneumonia...."
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