Topics Discussed: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; aids, pediatric; hiv; hiv exposure; hiv infection, congenital; immunology; neonatology.
Sections: Definition and Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Pearls, References.
Excerpt:"Worldwide, more than 2 million children younger than 15 years are infected with HIV, with perinatal transmission the source of most of these infections.1,2 In the developed world, where prenatal testing and safe and effective antiretroviral prophylaxis are widely available, perinatally-acquired HIV has become almost entirely preventable. With early testing and treatment of HIV-infected mothers and their newborns the risk of perinatal HIV transmission can be reduced to less than 2%.3 The pediatric provider plays an essential role in disease reduction. By early identification of HIV-exposed infants, timely virologic testing and provision of postpartum HIV and opportunistic infection prophylaxis, pediatric care providers can intervene to dramatically reduce the risk of infection for the neonate...."
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