Topics Discussed: urinary tract infection; urology and nephrology.
Sections: Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Summary, References.
Excerpt:"Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined by the presence of microorganisms within the urinary tract, which is usually sterile. Since asymptomatic colonization of the urinary tract can occur, definitive diagnosis often relies upon a constellation of features that might include history and examination findings, elevated inflammatory markers, and repeat urine cultures. UTIs are typically divided into lower tract disease, where infection is localized to the bladder and urethra (cystitis and urethritis), and upper tract disease, where it extends to the ureter and kidney (pyelonephritis). Although both upper and lower tract disease may result in significant morbidity, pyelonephritis in particular is associated with renal scarring and subsequent hypertension, chronic renal disease, and preeclampsia.1,2..."
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