Topics Discussed: adenoviruses; bronchiolitis; ear, nose, and throat; human bocavirus; influenza; metapneumovirus, human; parainfluenza virus; pulmonology and respiratory medicine; respiratory syncytial virus infections; respiratory syncytial viruses; rhinovirus.
Sections: Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, Management, Treatment, Course and Prognosis, Prevention, References.
Excerpt:"Bronchiolitis, a common communicable respiratory illness manifesting with signs of small airways inflammation, primarily affects children younger than 2 years. Over one in five children will have bronchiolitis-associated wheezing in the first year of life.1 Bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalization of children in the United States. Between 1% and 3% of all children are hospitalized as a result of bronchiolitis; one in four infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis are younger than 6 weeks of age, and over half are younger than 6 months of age. The mean length of hospital stay for children is 3 days (interquartile range 25 days), and the cost for care is estimated at over a half billion dollars annually.24 Despite the high prevalence of the disease and high rates of hospitalization, bronchiolitis is responsible for only about 100 pediatric deaths each year in the United States.5Underlying conditions such as prematurity, complex congenital heart disease, cystic fibrosis, bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, and human immunodeficiency virus infection contribute to a worsened disease course. Premature infants are at high risk for severe illness as a result of bronchiolitis23,24 because of immune compromise related to immunologic immaturity compounded by incomplete placental transfer of maternal IgG before birth.25 Furthermore, incomplete formation of the alveoli of the lung leads to pulmonary fibrosis and decreased lung..."
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