Section 6. Principles of Adolescent Care >
Part 2. Health Problems of Adolescents >
Chapter 71. Substance Use and AbuseStephanie N. Crewe and Arik V. Marcell
Topics Discussed: adolescent care and gynecology; alcohol and/or drug screening; behavior; cannabis; drug screening; ethanol; illicit drugs; substance abuse; substance abuse detection; substance use disorders; tobacco.
Sections: Covariation of Risk Behaviors, References.
Excerpt:"Substance use and abuse in adolescence
is a major public health problem. Identification of adolescents
at risk or those currently abusing substances in the health care
setting is often missed, or the substance abuse undertreated. Although
the prevalence for substance use over the past decade has decreased
from higher rates in the late 1970s, the 2007 lifetime prevalence
rates of alcohol use and cigarette smoking among adolescents remain
high at 72.2% and 46.2% respectively.1,2 Lifelong substance
use habits are formed during adolescence and young adulthood and
are associated with short-term and long-term health consequences.Table 71-1 provides a summary of common substances;
examples of commercial and street drug names; route of administration;
onset of action and duration; and common intoxication effects, withdrawal
symptoms and potential consequences.Alcohol is fermented from fruits or grains (wine, beer), and
fortification (port, sherry), distillation (brandy, whiskey, gin,
vodka), vaporization, or condensation can increase its potency.
Ethanol content in brewed beverages is measured as "percent" (weight
to volume) and in distilled beverages as "proof" units.
In the United States, 1 proof means 0.5% alcohol, or twice
the percent (eg, 80 proof is 40% alcohol). Ethanol content
is highly variable (beer, 36%; wine, 1214%;
distilled spirits, 4060%).Ethanol acts as a..."
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