Section 8. The Acutely Ill Infant and Child >
Part 3. Injuries and Untoward Events >
Chapter 117. Submersion InjuryPamela J. Okada and M. Douglas Baker
Topics Discussed: acute illness; drowning; immersion; near drowning.
Sections: Clinical Manifestations of Submersion Injury, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention, References.
Excerpt:"Historically, a number of definitions have been used to describe
the submersion or drowning event, incorporating characteristics of
the event, pathophysiology, and outcomes. The terminology was confusing
and inconsistent. To solve this problem an international Utstein-style
consensus conference convened in 2002 to develop guidelines for
the definition and reporting of data related to submersion injury
and drowning.2 The following definitions and recommendations
were established. Drowning is "a process resulting in primary
respiratory impairment from submersion or immersion in a liquid
medium." The drowning process is "the continuum
that begins when the victim's airway lies below the surface
of the liquid, usually water," until the time the victim
is rescued and given appropriate resuscitative measures. At this
point the drowning process is interrupted. In addition, the consensus
recommended the following terms be abandoned: dry drowning; wet drowning; active,
passive, or silent drowning; secondary drowning;
and even near-drowning. The word drowned will
refer to a person who died from drowning. Immersion is
to be covered in water; thus for drowning to occur, at least the
face and airway are immersed. Submersion implies
that the entire body, including the airway, is under water.2 ..."
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