Topics Discussed: Growth and Development; physical examination; primary survey; vital signs, pediatric.
Excerpt:"Newborns are examined after birth to check for major abnormalities and to make sure the transition to extrauterine life is without difficulty. The newborn infant should undergo a complete physical examination within 24 h of birth. It is easier to listen to the heart and lungs first when the infant is quiet. Warming the stethoscope before using it decreases the likelihood of making the infant cry.Vital signs
- Temperature. Indicate whether the temperature is rectal (which is usually 1° higher than oral), oral, or axillary (which is usually 1° lower than oral).
- Respirations. The normal respiratory rate in a newborn is 4060 breaths/min.
- Blood pressure. Blood pressure correlates directly with gestational age, postnatal age of the infant, and birthweight. (For normal blood pressure curves, see Appendix C.)
- Pulse rate. The normal pulse rate is 100180 beats/min in the newborn (usually 120160 beats/min when awake, 7080 beats/min when asleep). In the healthy infant, the heart rate increases with stimulation.
Head circumference, length, weight, and gestational age
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