Topics Discussed: impairment of balance; movement disorders; muscular imbalance; musculoskeletal system.
Sections: Definitions and Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis, Initial Management, Indications for Consultation or Referral, References.
Excerpt:"Although large-scale epidemiologic studies are lacking, pediatric movement disorders are relatively common. Many movements that are brought to clinical attention are transient and may be associated with normal development. Additionally, the natural history of specific disorders varies and must be interpreted in the context of a child's developmental stage. A careful history, physical examination, and direct observation of the movements in question are critical for diagnosis and management of pediatric movement disorders (Table 13-1). Factors that should prompt consideration of more significant underlying neurological disorder include the progression of symptoms, a family history of a heritable neurological disease, complications during childbirth, a failure of the child to reach developmental milestones, and significant functional impairment. Serological tests, electroencephalography, and imaging studies may contribute in unusual cases, but in the majority of cases it is the clinical impression of the treating physician that drives both diagnosis and treatment of pediatric movement disorders...."
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