Topics Discussed: child nutrition; gastroenterology and hepatology; nutritional status.
Sections: Nutritional Needs and Requirements, Nutritional Assessment, Nutrition Support, Enteral Nutrition, Parenteral Nutrition, Nutrition Needs in Disease, References.
Excerpt:"According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the goal of
pediatrics is "to attain optimal physical, mental, and
social health and well-being for all infants, children, adolescents,
and young adults." It is self-evident that maintaining
good nutrition is a prerequisite to attaining this goal. Appropriate
nutrition supplies the "building blocks" for healthy
physical growth. Optimal mental health and mental capacity rely
on adequate nutrition, from conception to old age. D.J.P. Barker theorized
that fetal nutrition is associated with a number of chronic conditions
of later life. The Barker hypothesis, in its expanded form, proposes
that infant nutrition, as well as fetal nutrition, has long-term
health effects reaching into adulthood and old age. Some of the
parameters that may be affected by nutrition in infancy include
cardiovascular health, blood pressure, bone mineralization, low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol, split proinsulin, and cognitive development.
While these observations are tantalizing, they are observational.
A causal relationship has not been established. The Barker hypothesis
continues to be debated, but to the extent that it proves true, early
nutrition gains tremendous importance...."
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