Topics Discussed: diarrhea; gastroenterology and hepatology.
Sections: Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Summary, References.
Excerpt:"Diarrhea is defined as a change in bowel movement pattern resulting
in an increase in stool volume and/or frequency, usually
with loose to watery stool consistency. Acute and chronic diarrhea are
defined based on duration of symptoms. Acute diarrhea lasts <14 days,
whereas chronic diarrhea persists for longer. In general, to be
considered diarrhea, three or more stools are passed per day. Patients
with chronic diarrhea may have periods of loose or frequent stools
with normal bowel movements in between episodes. Diarrhea can also
be defined based on stool volume; however, measuring this accurately
is often difficult. Normal stool volume is about 510 g
of stool/kg body weight/day for infants and about
100200 g of stool/day in children and adults.
A 24-hour stool volume of >10 g/kg in infants and >200 g
in children and adults is considered diarrhea. Acute diarrhea is
common. It is most often secondary to viral infections. Other causes
of acute diarrhea include toxin-induced diarrhea and antibiotic-associated
diarrhea. Infectious diarrhea is most often found in children under
age 5 years with a rate of about one to three episodes per year. Causes
of chronic diarrhea are more diverse and range from functional disorders
such as Toddler's diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome
(IBS) to disorders that may impact overall health such as inflammatory
bowel disease or celiac disease...."
The content above is only an
excerpt. For full access, log into an existing user account below, purchase an annual subscription, or
purchase a short-term subscription to the complete website.
offers pediatrics students,
educators, and practioners access to leading McGraw-Hill texts, interactive imaging
content, exclusive multimedia, and flexible curricular tools.
Timed access to all of AccessPediatrics
24 hours for $29.95
48 hours for $49.95