Topics Discussed: diarrhea; gastroenteritis; gastroenterology and hepatology; infectious gastroenteritis; vomiting.
Sections: Vomiting, Diarrhea, and Gastroenteritis: Introduction, Gastroenteritis, References.
- Most of the time vomiting and/or diarrhea are caused by gastroenteritis.
- Life-threatening causes of vomiting include bowel obstructions, increased intracranial pressure, diabetic ketoacidosis, and inborn errors of metabolism.
- Life-threatening causes of diarrhea include toxic megacolon, Escherichia coli 0157, and pseudomembranous enterocolitis.
- Most dehydrated patients with gastroenteritis can be treated with oral rehydrating solutions.
- Most cases of gastroenteritis resolve without antibiotic therapy.
- New vaccines against rotavirus have so far been found to be safe and effective.
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